(Click on under
lined links below
to go to Subjects 
in Text)

- Contents

Chapter 1. Vision System Design

A. Importance  of 
eyes - How and why 
we see? 
1. How we see
2. Why we see

B. Optics and image 
requirements in 
Biological eyes
1. Brain intelligence 
2. Brain-guided eye 
3. Hardware and 
software interactions
4. Eye arrangement for 
stereo vision

C. Optical system 
designs in 
Biological eyes

Chapter 2.
Biological Eye 

Chapter 3.
Eye Design 

Chapter 4. Eye 

Chapter 5. Optical 
Systems Design 

Chapter 6. The 
Eye Designer

Related Links

Appendix A - Slide Show & Conference Speech by Curt Deckert

Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert

Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers

Appendix D - Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy










Chapter 1
Sections B and C
- Prev Page       Go to Chapter Links       Next Page

(Click on PICTURE IN TEXT to bring up LARGE PICTURE)

B. Optics and image processing requirements in biological eyes
     Vision is one of the great mysteries not yet completely understood by scientists. Because of the complexity and variety of biological eyes, we will go into specific examples of specific eye designs. This should help readers understand the intelligent design that has gone into biological eyes. We will deal with functions, size, and classification of optical designs that are typically found in nature. Then, in later sections, we will compare man's efforts in building eye-like systems for special purposes. 

1. Brain intelligence
     Brain intelligence is required to control and process optical image information from the eyes of each creature, to be of any value to that creature. Genetic specifications or data codes may explain how information is used for reproduction and repair of eyes. 
How do we account for the genetic code passing on the instinctive use of eyes such as object recognition capability?
Visual systems including brains are each cases of irreducible complexity.
     Eyes of large creatures such as humans see and process over ten scenes per second. In some small creatures, such as insects, more rapid vision systems process over 100 scenes per second. If necessary human eyes can process three-dimensional information up to the equivalent of 30 scenes per second to direct the eyes to look in a given direction, to track objects, and to automatically focus stereo images. This requires processing and feedback from the brain that involves brain intelligence. It is only in recent years that we can process this rate of information with light-speed computers.

2. Brain-guided eye platforms
     Optical-mechanical structures controlled by the brain must be in place to automatically control eye focus and light input with an iris or other means of light control in the retina. Eyes must be in a suitable stable structure to achieve accurate tracking for good rapid visual performance. Just seeing images as we run is not a trivial problem. Multiple eyes in one being must be coordinated to work together by communicating with the brain. The "software" of the brain then provides coordination with other body senses and functions.
     How is this "software" reproduced, upgraded, and applied in a changing environment? It is certain that intelligent design is required. 
     Typical eye functions require the use of only a small part of the total weight of the brain of a person or animal. The quality of sight and complexity of image processing seems to be somewhat proportional to the size of eyes and brains. However eye size is not proportional to body size. The whale has a small proportional part of total weight in eyes, while the smaller dragonfly has a much higher proportion of its weight in the eyes, Paradoxically, some of the smaller insects have more exotic eye designs fit into smaller spaces.
     The reproduction cycle of complex cells still holds considerable mystery for eye designs. 

3. Hardware and software interaction
     Fundamental vision processes are pre-programmed in many eyes and brains, while other vision processes involving pattern recognition are learned. Some are even learned at specific times in the life cycle. If they are not learned at that time, sight is not developed properly. 
     How did the operable timing cycle develop where certain intelligence is time dependent and predictable in complex creatures? Pre-programmed and/or learned reactions are vital to a creature when it is starting out in life. 
Before learning and processing new information there must be stable computing hardware and software. Preprogramming origins of eye recognition ability remain a mystery. We now have more experience in intelligent optical designs, but biological designs hold even more mystery. This is especially true as we realize how little we really know about specific detailed DNA plans and processes for eyes and their potential for minor variations.

4. Eye arrangement for stereo vision
     Stereo vision requires two or more eyes to sense depth as a third dimension. Stereo vision has become vital for work, high-speed travel, and creating implements to help us survive and enjoy life in a changing world. Stereo vision requires well-coordinated eyes for precise depth perception. Accuracy of depth perception is a function of the number of photoreceptors or sensitive light sensors or eye optical resolution, eye angle, image focusing, and brain interpretation. 
     Each pair of photoreceptors effectively acts as a sensor for one point of light in the scene, as sensed by the eye. Thus, to process an image with many points of light, eyes must have enough sensors to correspond to the number of points of light in the image. 
     To judge depth, precision and intelligence are required to consider angles relative to the distance between the eyes.
     The means of stereo vision is more of a mystery as we learn more about it. Multiple eyes that cannot see in three dimensions have less value. With two or more eyes, the processing in the brain is multiplied by two or more times. We have to ask how small brains learn to carry out 3-D image processing functions as shown by Figure 1.8. 
fig1-8TN.gif Stereo Vision500x150
Figure 1.8 Diagram of 
Stereo Vision showing 
curvature at several 
distances for human vision

     The probability of the random evolution of eye stereo vision must be at least 1 divided by a number with at least 40 zeros because of all the elements, structures, intelligence, and communications links that must come together to visualize in three dimensions. This low probability comes, in part, from the probability of cells with DNA codes corresponding to processing stereo vision occurring naturally. Just assembling the materials making up cells, in one place has a very low probability without intelligent design. Beyond this is the reproducibility process probability. Here again one could make the case for probability less than one part in a number with 50 zeros. This thinking is consistent with Behe and others applying modern technology and probability to new microbiology discoveries.

C. Optical system designs in biological eyes
     Design requirements vary for each creature's eyes. For example, small eyes in jellyfish, flatworms and sea stars have very crude forms of vision, without typical camera type lenses to form a complex image. Even the eyes of early trilobites have custom optical designs. Light detection, direction sensing, motion sensing, and proximity sensing is done using eyes with a limited number of sensors. Some consist of a few cells of light-sensitive materials (called pigment spot ocelli). They are thought by some to be a first step or basis for evolutionary eye development. Those who believe in evolution without intelligent design must provide evidence of cell evolution or DNA changes that have led to obvious intelligence in vision. For years, biochemists came up with few significant eye cell design details. Eye cells can be very complex for specific purposes such as transmitting image data. The small probability of a beneficial mutation without intelligent guidance would seem to be limited by the relative few potential positive variations.
     Most eyes in nature are far more versatile than special-purpose, man-made intelligent robotic eyes. Conventional television sets don't allow us to see in stereo with high resolution, and some robotic cameras do not even have color capabilities. Even "simple eyes" have multiple small light sensors, simple retinas, or groups of sensors to sense the presence of light patterns. Because some small creatures have a number of eyes working together without giving an image their eyes act as motion detectors. Some creatures have many simple eyes distributed over their body to sense moving objects. 

     In some more complex eyes having a lens and cornea, there may be little apparent supporting structure and means of focus and control of light. Optical designs are versatile in small applications when it is only necessary to form a crude image on retinal sensor surfaces. 
     Camera-type eyes provide evidence of specific designs. Photoreceptor cells that sense light and give out an appropriate signal are generally rod-shaped with an axon fiber to communicate with the brain. These sensor cells can be pointed toward the light or away from the source of light. This classifies a design as direct or indirect focus. We will not go into detail on eyes in this respect, because it is a detail depending upon the eyes best use. For example, spiders having eight eyes can have two direct and six indirectly focused. In some cases, light goes through sensing cells into a retina and is then reflected back through the sensing cells to achieve better light-gathering efficiency.  fig1-9TNa.jpg Tiger's Eye Showing Light Reflected Back To Source 300x300
Figure 1.9 Tiger's Eye Showing 
Light Reflected Back To Source
    This type of reflection is often seen in cat's eyes, and in others having a camera-type lens that reflects light back to its source rather than being absorbed intensely. See above Figure 1.9 of a tiger's eye reflecting light back to its source. (from Bruce Chambers)

     When we consider the theories of Dawkins and Darwin, one cannot see evidence of the origin of intelligent design from only the speculation of good random mutations. For example, insects have a large number of eye sensors that are quite different from the eyes of small sea or land animals. 
     Why would they evolve differently if there were some natural brain and/or motor skills to help the evolutionary process control eye design?
Natural design in vision systems is much like the machines and processes in cells that are irreducibly complex. Intelligence is inferred from the earth's structure, the periodic table, and molecular design. DNA reproduction makes it difficult to believe evolutionary theories beyond what happens to a design going into new environments. 
     Darwin does not address the eye cell control process very well. Since cellular processes responsible for life were not understood very well until this century, one would not expect Darwin to discuss original cell design. Many variations discussed by Darwin are inborn, heritable variations. 
     Creatures may have been programmed to react in a specific way when they see a specific scene even though they do not have enough resolution to see fine details of that scene. Some creatures cannot recognize specific objects or color, because they don't have enough resolution or the right pigment to see specific color variations or enough information processing capability. Some creatures, such as some simple insects or marine animals, may see only enough to tell if an object is moving across their field of vision. 
     Variable focus in the more advanced eye systems enables eyes to focus on 
different parts of a scene at different distances. These advanced eyes focus on small objects close-up, and then focus on objects at long distances. 
     Click the following link for a good example of why scientists use the word design when discussing the profound complexity of eyes, even in an organism like the trilobite, extinct for more than 200,000 years. The advantage of good eye design in "The Trilobite Eye" by S. M. Gon III

Questions for Discussion

Where and how did the technology of DNA reproduction come from and why do eye cells reproduce at the present rates? 

Chapter Links

Click for Chapter --
Eye Home Page
[Chap-1a] - [1bc]
[Chap-2abc] - [2def]  - [2ghi]
[Chap-3a] - [3b] - [3c] - [3d]  - [3e] - [3f]  - [3g] - [3h]  - [3i]
[Chap-4a] - [4b]  - [4cd]
[Chap-5ab]  - [5cd]
[Chap-6a] - [6b]  - [6c]
Related Links
Appendix A - Slide Show & Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers
Appendix D - Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy
Table of All Figures
- Prev Page                                 Go to Top                                Next Page
File: eyech1-bc.html