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- Contents

Chapter 1. Vision
 System Design 

Chapter 2. Biological Eye  Designs

Chapter 3. Eye
 Design Illustrations

Chapter 4. Eye 
A. General requirements 
1. Optical, computing and intelligence requirements
2. Design for eproduction
3. Physical development 

B. Optical design and 
1. Optical design issues 
2. Programming issues relative to probability 
3. Original intelligence issues 

C. Design control 
1. Control of cell complexity 
2. The DNA plan for control of cell integration 

D. Questions and comments on evolution related to eye reproduction 

Chapter 5. Optical 
 Systems Design 

Chapter 6. The Eye Designer

Related Links

Appendix A - Slide Show & Conference Speech by Curt Deckert

Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert

Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers

Appendix D - Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy










Chapter 4
Section A
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4. EYE REPRODUCTION A. General requirements
      We will deal with the reproduction of optical designs, biological reproduction of computing requirements, overall vision system design and development, and the integration of the biological eye reproduction process. Here I take a practical engineering approach, instead of a traditional biological approach based on unsupported hypotheses about origins. Design depends on very exact quantitative and qualitative cause and effect relationships.
     By "reproduction" we are referring to the process of duplicating identical types of eyes fromone generation to another of a plant, animal or human. Our Creator has designed "very high technology" into all kinds of organisms. This may cause an illusion of macro-evolution, since populations of specific organisms adapt genetically to a wide variety of environments. Cause and effect provide one potential starting point in considering consistent eye reproduction.
     What is the limit of capability of any creature, except man, to improve its vision? 
     What if you had the assignment of providing vision to some creature? 
     Would you talk to an biological eye expert at a local university? 
     Professors of biology may not know what it takes to build or reproduce a vision system, but most optical designers can recognize good vision system design. We would not expect most academic biological scientists to have optical engineering design and development experience. It takes intelligence, inventiveness, and continuous experimentation to develop and perfect new optical technologies. This assumption may be missing, as scientists speculate on how nature creates the irreducibly complex building block cells of eyes. Contrast simplified diagrams of biological and optical designers. (Figs 4.1 and 4.2a from pg. 3 and 32, Neuro-Vision Systems, Ed. by Madan M. Gupta, George K. Knopf, IEEE Press, 1994)  (Figs 4.2b-c by permission of James T Fulton, Dir of Research Vision Concepts

fig4-01TNre.jpg Biological Vision Design Diagram 300x200
Figure 4.1 Biological 
Vision Design Diagram

fig4-02cTN.gif Human Visual system including some brain detail 200x257

Figure 4.2c Human 
Visual system including 
some brain detail
fig4-02bTN.gif Figure 4.2b Circuit diagram of visual system 250x114
Figure 4.2b Circuit diagram of visual system 
fig4-02aTN.jpg Possible Optical Vision Design Alternatives for a Neural System 250x106
Figure 4.2a Possible Optical Vision Design Alternatives for a Neural System

1. Optical, computing, and intelligence requirements
     Most insects, animals and humans have at least two eyes for binocular vision. Both eyes require coordinated optical and image processing systems which have to be reproduced in very fine detail to provide good vision generation after generation. Brain cell intelligence provides coordination between eyes during reproduction, vision operation and then provides a repair process.
     Many people may be able to put basic elements together to create a vision system. However, creating or developing it to function in the right order for reproduction of all the building blocks is a far greater challenge. Originally an intelligent plan was required to craft the DNA, to provide the plan to generate and arrange cells in the correct order. The DNA design also has to deal with the overall control to provide multiple chemical processors to coordinate the growth of each cell. Eye cell systems would never reproduce in a repeatable way without specific detailed plans for control of the process. There must be complete directions for eye reproduction at the DNA detail level to reproduce the next generation of eyes.
     If a designer is not present, "creative mutations" have to create vision reproduction technology. Fundamental biological eye optical designs must include the capacity to reproduce. This process must control variables and tolerances to compensate for cell variance during the total development process, so each eye type has the necessary functional characteristics. For this to happen there must be very detailed plans at the cellular level to control the manufacturing of the correct materials for the variety of eye building block cells. Their order of cell placement in the eye is very important. The following figure illustrates how cell placement must occur for vision to take place. (Pg. 4, Neuro-Vision Systems, Ed. by Madan M. Gupta, George K. Knopf, IEEE Press, 1994)  fig4-03TN.jpg Cell Architecture for vision system development 200x207
Figure 4.3 Cell Architecture 
for vision system 
development. Like Fig. 5-22
     Scientists are just beginning to realize the extent of information needed to configure cell arrangements. For example, an optical design plan has to take into account materials, geometry, field of vision, light availability, size resolution, etc. Even the functions of focus and light control will not allow useful vision without intelligent programming added to basic eye design and construction. Evidence of design shows that programming was designed in by wisdom, knowledge, and power, not by small random mutations and environmental selection. Focus and control of the eye requires a brain with enough intelligence to recognize good images to control the process of focus correction and light control.
     Even sight restored after being born blind requires intelligence, programming and learning. This can be more difficult to integrate than if vision occurred in a normal sequence of events. This illustrates the need for intelligent input

2. Design for reproduction
     One should not equate the highly controlled fetal tissue development during the growth of the eye in the human embryo with any sort of evolution or random function. The& reproduction of eyes is very much an irreducibly complex technology. The evolutionary process assumes no outside intelligence is added, but reproduction results from an intelligent plan. 
     What creature is able to develop a system of reproduction?
     Fetal tissue is controlled by internally contained DNA codes at the cell level. This code, located in cells, can contain approximately the same amount of information found in a large encyclopedia. Please see the following illustration to get some perspective on the structural size of DNA. One must realize that DNA is well within the central part of each cell. (Pg. 5, Neuro-Vision Systems, Ed. by Madan M. Gupta, George K. Knopf, IEEE Press, 1994) 

fig4-04bTN.jpg Figure 4.4 Structural size of cells 4010x458
Figure 4.4 Structural size of cells
     It is exceedingly difficult to estimate the intelligence necessary to design and develop a means of eye reproduction in terms of present optical knowledge. It is paradoxical that even in simple animals we see amazingly complex optical designs. Because of the vast diversity of animals, it is especially unlikely that any completely new self-generated eyes have occurred without specific intelligence built into the brains and cells from the start. Communication or information cannot produce anything without intelligence. 

3. Physical development requirements
     There also has to be power to do the work of chemical processing for reproduction, even if the DNA information is there. It takes a coordination of many complex-engineering design functions to provide sight, as we know it. At the present time, the process of completely understanding all details of the initial reproduction process design and development of reproducible eyes is beyond human capability. 
     Consistency in materials for basic building block cells, even with different food or fuel inputs, is required of all eye types. Eye materials have to be consistent, even though there may be significant input or food differences. The design or shape of materialsused in eyes must not change because of what we eat or drink. Multiple chemical processing plants reproduce new cells. Cells provide communication of intelligence to help heal and repair cells and to provide growth, as needed, according to an overall plan. Each cell is a factory system, like organs are systems of systems. Eyes are complex body systems that have complex systems of systems.
     The overall operating complexity of the eye is beyond present technology, but reproduction of eyes is even more astounding. This is especially true for our eyes where thousands of cells have to be assembled to very close tolerances just to provide seemingly minor lens subsystems. 
     See the following vision system diagram of various functions needed for vision. (Pg. 373, Neuro-Vision Systems, Ed. by Madan M. Gupta, George K. Knopf, IEEE Press, 1994) 
fig4-05bTN.gif Possible Optical Vision Design Alternatives for a Neural System 300x185
Figure 4.5b Functions Needed for Vision 
to Take Place (Starting with light at the 
visual sensor and ending with recognition)
     The complexity of eye optical reproduction indicates an original designer-creator at the micro level because of the complexity of cells, arrangement of cells, intelligence in cells, communication between cells for growth, control of the optical properties in cells, and communication between light-sensing cells and the brain. There is an astounding orchestration of technologies during eye reproduction in the development from an egg to an adult. The number of parallel brain interactions within eyes provides a major scientific challenge in the study of eyes. It would be interesting to see what happens when Michael J. Behe (author of Darwin's Black Box) and other molecular biology scientists or biochemists study eye reproduction molecular biology in more detail. 
     Reproduction must have an originating designer because of the communication of design details, which must occur in the process of vision reproduction. This is a very complex technology in the case of eye operation in a variety of environments such as temperature, pressure, available food, available light, wavelengths of light, etc. To leave good engineering design changes to random mutations could be destructive to the development and reproduction of eyes because of the close tolerance optical requirements of overall eye design. Original intelligent design suggests a means of orchestrating the technologies associated with complex eye formation and reproduction. The probability of this happening without intelligent design is so remote that probabilities approach one part in a number with at least 20 zeros. This calculated by taking the probability of each type of building blocks occurring and then the probability of one cell going to the correct cell to form a vision system. In any case, the probabilities are extremely low for vision systems occurring without intelligent designs.

Questions for Discussion

How would you evolve a vision system?
How does one explain the near perfection of a process that has produced consistent reproduction of eyes at rapid rates for millennia of time? 


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Related Links
Appendix A - Slide Show & Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers
Appendix D - Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy
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