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Chapter 1. Vision
 System Design 
Chapter 2. Biological Eye  Designs
Chapter 3. Eye
 Design Illustrations
A. Plant light sensing
1. Grass, simple vines, 
and stems
2. Flowers
B. Lower animal eyes
1. Flatworms
2. Clams and Scallops 
3. Nautilus
4. Shrimp
5. Crab
6. Octopus and 
   giant squid
7. Spiders
8. Scorpions
8. Brittle Star 
C. Insect eyes 
1. Bees
2. Dragonflies
3. Butterflies
4. Flies
5. Ants
6. Moths
7. Beetles
8. Wasp
D. Fish eyes 
1. Shark
2. Flounder
3. Four-eyed fish 
E. Amphibian eyes
1. Frog
2. Salamander
F. Reptile eyes
1. Boa constrictor 
2. Rattle snake
3. Lizard
4. Turtle
5. Crocodile and 
G. Bird eyes
1. Eagles
2. Hummingbirds
3. Owls
4. Ostrich
5. Cormorants
H. Mammal eyes
1. Whales
2. Elephants
3. Lions, tigers, and 
   other cats
4. Monkeys
5. Rats and mice
6. Bats
7. Tarsier
I. Human eyes
1. Iris
2. Lens
3. Retina
Chapter 4. Eye 
Chapter 5. Optical 
 Systems Design 
Chapter 6. The Eye Designer
Related Links
Related Links
Appendix A - Slide Show & Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers
Appendix D - Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy
Chapter 3
Section A
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A. Plant light sensing
     Plants, like animals, are able to sense light. Plant-design genetic codes enable the production of photo-sensors to slowly sense light, which they usually grow toward. Plant light sensors are relatively crude compared to the eyes of mobile creatures. They show reaction to light by the opening or closing of a flower or by some other similar action. Most plants respond to environmental changes. One method is by sensing light and then growing additional roots and other support structure that may contain more sensitive cells to receive more light. Thus plants show a degree of intelligence or the ability for adaptive corrective action. 
     Though plants do not contain identifiable eyes like animals, they do include fungus-like cells (Fungi are not plants. Plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi are different kingdoms of life) which contain light-sensitive pigments. These cells control growth of fungus spores to grow in the direction of maximum light. An example of a common fungus is shown on Figure 3.1. (Pg. 16 Bugs, Bloodsuckers, Bacteria and More by Peter Brookesmith, Barnes & Noble, 1999)  fig3-01TN.jpg Example of branching filaments of fungus on skin 300x200
Fig 3.1 Example of branching 
filaments of fungus on skin
     Larger plants possess pigmented depressions that tend to follow the motion of the sun. Since light is essential for plants, they grow toward it to capture and make efficient use of it. Although plants sense light, they do not respond rapidly like animals or insects.

1. Grass, Simple Vines and Stems       Grass and vines are examples of life forms having a less intricate form of light sensing ability. Grass and new stem growth in vines appear to occur toward sunlight as it hits peak intensity, when the sun's rays are nearly perpendicular from the ground. Some plants, like the silk tree (mimosa), have light-sensitive leaves that fold up at night. One can create different configurations of plants by using the sun's rays to control their direction of growth. 

fig3-02TN.jpg Vine 300x225
Figure 3.2 Vine

     When flowers open and close their petals in response to light, this indicates light  sensors in their blossoms. Some plants, such as sunflowers, track the sun on an on-going basis. Since plants need insects for pollination, they must open their flower petals during the day when most insects are active. Flowers such as hibiscus, mimosa, epiphyllum, iris, and others behave this way. The morning glory is similar but it closes its petals later in the day. Flowers also determine when to grow and bloom by sensing the long-term change of seasons. 

fig3-03TN.jpg Flower 300x225
Figure 3.3 Flower
     More research needs to be done to study algae, shrubs, trees, etc., to understand the whole spectrum of plant sensors. Plants and animals often have special colored coatings produced by optical interference effects used on modern interference color filters. This technique requires very accurate formation of thin films a fraction of a micron thick. It is also believed that many plants have narrow bands of reflection beyond the limits of human sensing to attract specific animals having specific extended color vision.

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Related Links
Appendix A - Slide Show & Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix B - Conference Speech by Curt Deckert
Appendix C - Comments From Our Readers
Appendix D - Panicked Evolutionists: The Stephen Meyer Controversy
Table of All Figures



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